交易百科

移动平均收敛散度(MACD)

美捷财智是一家全球商业和金融新闻股票行情以及市场数据和分析探索交易方法的社交平台,提供证券交易数据、股票数据分析、市场行情分析以及区块链资讯等内容服务。

什么是移动平均收敛散度(MACD)?

移动平均趋同散度(MACD)是趋势追踪动量指标,它显示了证券价格的两个移动平均值之间的关系。通过从12个周期的EMA减去26个周期的指数移动平均值(EMA)来计算MACD 。

该计算的结果是MACD行。然后,在MACD线上方绘制MACD的为期9天的EMA(称为“信号线”),可以触发买入和卖出信号。当MACD穿越信号线上方时,交易者可以购买该证券,而当MACD穿越信号线下方时,股票交易者可以卖出或做空该证券。可以用几种方法来解释移动平均收敛散度(MACD)指标,但是更常见的方法是交叉,散度和快速上升/下降。

重要要点
通过从12个周期的EMA减去26个周期的指数移动平均值(EMA)来计算移动平均会聚散度(MACD)。
当MACD超过(买入)或低于(卖出)信号线时,就会触发技术信号。
交叉的速度也被认为是市场超买或超卖的信号。
MACD可帮助投资者用数据分析了解价格的上涨还是下跌趋势。

移动平均收敛散度-MACD

MACD的公式是:
MACD=12周期EMA - 26期EMA  

通过从短期EMA(12个周期)中减去长期EMA(26个周期)来计算MACD。指数移动平均线(EMA)是一种 移动平均线 (MA),它对最新数据点具有更大的权重和重要性。

指数移动平均值也称为指数 加权 移动平均值。与简单移动平均线 (SMA)相比,指数加权移动平均对近期价格变化的反应要大得多, 简单移动平均线(SMA)对该期间的所有观察值都施加相同的权重。

从MACD学习
每当12周期EMA(价格图表上的红线表示)高于26周期EMA(价格图表中的蓝线)时,MACD都为正值(在下部图表中显示为蓝线)。当12期EMA低于26期EMA时为负值。MACD高于或低于其基准线的距离越远,表明两个EMA之间的距离正在增长。

在以下图表中,您可以在价格图表下方的指标中看到应用于价格图表的两个EMA如何对应于其基准线(虚线)上方或下方的MACD(蓝色)交叉线。



MACD通常以直方图(请参见下图)显示,该直方图绘制了MACD及其信号线之间的距离。如果MACD高于信号线,则直方图将高于MACD的基线。如果MACD低于其信号线,则直方图将低于MACD的基线。交易者使用MACD的直方图来确定何时看涨或看跌势头很高。



MACD与相对强度
相对强弱指标(RSI)旨在表明 相对于最近的价格水平,市场是否被视为 超买 或 超卖。RSI是一个振荡器,可以计算给定时间段内的平均价格损益。默认时间段是14个时间段,值的范围从0到100。

MACD衡量两个EMA之间的关系,而RSI衡量相对于近期价格高点和低点的价格变化。这两个指标经常一起使用,可以为 分析师 提供更完整的市场技术面貌。

这些指标都可以衡量市场的动能,但是由于它们衡量的是不同的因素,因此有时会给出相反的指示。例如,RSI可能会在一段持续时间内显示高于70的读数,表明 相对于近期价格而言,市场相对于买入交易而言 过度扩张,而MACD则表明市场的购买势头仍在增加。任一指标都可能通过显示与价格的背离来预示即将发生的趋势变化(价格继续走高而指标转为更低,反之亦然)。

MACD的局限性
背离的主要问题之一是,它通常可以预示可能的逆转,但实际上并没有实际的逆转发生,它会产生误报。另一个问题是,差异并不能预测所有逆转。换句话说,它预测不会发生太多的反转,而实际价格反转不会足够。

当资产价格横向移动时,例如在 趋势之后的范围 或 三角形模式中,经常会出现“假阳性”差异 。价格的动能下降(横向移动或趋势缓慢移动)将导致MACD脱离先前的极端,并趋向于零线,即使没有真正的反转。

其他MACD资源
您对使用MACD进行交易感兴趣吗?有关更多信息,请查看我们自己的关于MACD和MACD的趋势反转的 入门。

如果您想了解更多指标,Investopedia的技术分析课程将对该主题进行全面介绍。您将学习基本和高级的技术分析,图表阅读技巧,需要确定的技术指标,以及如何利用五个小时以上的点播视频,练习和交互式内容中的价格趋势。

MACD交叉示例
如下图所示,当MACD跌破信号线时,这是一个看跌信号,表明可能到了卖出的时间。相反,当MACD上升至信号线上方时,指标给出看涨信号,这表明资产价格可能会经历上涨势头。一些交易者在进入头寸之前等待信号线上方的确认交叉,以减少被“伪造”和过早进入头寸的机会。

符合主流趋势的分频器更加可靠。如果MACD在长期上升趋势中经过短暂修正后突破其信号线,则有看涨确认的资格。



如果MACD在长期下跌趋势中短暂走高之后跌破信号线,则交易者将认为这是看跌确认。



发散的例子
当MACD形成与价格的相应高点和低点相背离的高点或低点时,这称为背离。当MACD形成两个上升的低点,对应于价格的两个下降的低点时,出现看涨背离。当长期趋势仍为正时,这是一个有效的看涨信号。

即使长期趋势为负,一些交易者仍会寻求看涨背离,因为尽管这种技术的可靠性较差,但它们可以暗示趋势发生变化。



当MACD形成一系列两个下跌高点,与价格的两个上涨高点相对应时,形成了看跌背离。在长期看跌趋势中出现的看跌背离被视为确认趋势可能会持续。

一些交易者将在长期看涨趋势中留意看跌背离,因为它们可能表明趋势疲软。但是,它不如在看跌趋势中看跌背离可靠。



快速上升或下降的例子
当MACD迅速上升或下降(短期移动均线远离长期移动均线)时,这表明证券已超买或超卖,并将很快恢复正常水平。交易者通常会将这种分析与相对强度指数(RSI)或其他技术指标结合起来,以验证超买或超卖情况。



投资者使用MACD直方图的方式与使用MACD本身的方式并不少见。也可以在直方图上标识正或负交叉,差异以及快速上升或下降。在确定哪种情况下最好使用哪种方法之前,需要一些经验,因为MACD信号及其直方图之间存在时序差异。

经常问的问题
交易者如何使用移动平均趋同差异(MACD)?
交易者使用MACD来识别股票价格趋势的方向或严重程度的变化。乍一看,MACD似乎很复杂,因为它依赖于其他统计概念,例如指数移动平均值(EMA)。但是从根本上来说,MACD可以帮助交易者发现什么时候最近的股价上涨势头可能预示着其潜在趋势的变化。这可以帮助交易者确定何时进入,增加或退出头寸。

MACD是领先指标还是落后指标?
MACD是一个滞后指标。毕竟,MACD中使用的所有数据分析都是基于股票的历史价格走势。由于它基于历史数据,因此必须“滞后”价格。但是,一些交易者使用MACD直方图来预测趋势何时发生变化。对于这些交易者,MACD的这一方面可能被视为未来趋势变化的主要指标。

什么是MACD正偏差?
MACD正背离是指MACD尚未达到新低的情况,尽管股票交易的价格达到了新低。这仍被视为看涨的交易信号,因此,术语为“正背离”。如果出现相反的情况(股价达到新高,但MACD未能达到新高),这将被视为看跌指标,被称为负背离。

以上技术分析指标分享,希望能对您有所帮助。

美捷财智不仅提供股票交易以及证券交易数据分析的平台,深入市场、细致分析,为您提供更为专业性的股票证券交易市场分析资讯内容,而且拥有专业的市场行情分析团队,主要对证券、股票市场、投资市场进行数据分析,助您找到您的投资、创业之路。

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[ Log time: 1618127526.9514 ] [ Expend time: 0.0017950534820557 ] SELECT `mt_topic_merge`.* FROM `mt_topic_merge` WHERE (target_id = 14)

[ Log time: 1618127526.979 ] [ Expend time: 0.027354001998901 ] SELECT `item_id`, `type` FROM mt_topic_relation WHERE `topic_id` IN(166,69,12,196,14)

[ Log time: 1618127526.989 ] [ Expend time: 0.0067429542541504 ] SELECT `mt_posts_index`.* FROM `mt_posts_index` WHERE (((post_id IN (19,22,21,65,66,76,73,74,89,90,92,93,94,99,101,103,106,108,110,111,107,122,123,125,133,141,142,143,144,145,147,148,150,151,154,162,168,169,172,173,174,175,176,177,178,179,180,181,182,189,190,191,192,193,197,218,220,222,223,224,225,226,228,229,230,231,232,233,234,236,239,241,242,243,244,246,247,248,249,250,251,252,253,255,258,259,260,261,262,128,266,269,270,199,271,273,274,278,279,280,281,290,282,284,285,286,287,277,254,272,263,288,289,291,292,294,297,299,300,301,304,307,309,314,317,319,326,327,333,335,336,339,338,337,340,343,344,346,347,351,353,355,356,357,359,360,365,367,368,370,371,376,377,379,380,381,382,384,386,387,388,389,390,391,392,393,394,395,396,397,402,403,404,407,408,411,415,416,417,418,419,420,423,427,429,431,434,436,439,444,445,447,449,454,455,456,457,459,460,461,466,467,468,469,471,473,475,478,488,498,499,501,502,503,504,507,508,510,511,512,514,516,517,518,519,520,521,522,523,525,527,528,529,533,534,536,537,538,541,542,543,544,545,546,547,548,549,556,557,558,559,560,561,565,566,567,568,570,574,575,576,577,580,581,582,583,587,588,590,591,592,593,596,597,598,600,602,603,604,605,607,608,609,611,613,614,615,616,617,618,619,621,626,627,628,629,630,631,632,634,635,639,641,643,646,647,648,650,653,655,656,657,659,660,663,665,666,669,671,672,674,678,679,680,681,682,685,686,687,688,692,694,695,696,698,699,700,701,702,705,706,709,710,713,715,716,717,719,720,722,724,725,727,728,731,735,737,738,739,740,741,742,743,744,749,751,752,753,755,757,758,759,760,761,762,764,765,768,769,770,771,773,774,775,778,779,780,781,782,783,785,786,787,790,791,795,798,801,802,804,806,807,808,809,810,811,812,813,814,818,819,820,822,824,825,828,829,832,835,839,840,842,843,844,846,848,850,851,853,855,858,859,863,867,868,873,874,875,876,878,879,880,881,882,884,885,886,888,890,891,893,897,899,902,903,907,908,909,910,911,915,916,917,918,919,922,923,926,929,930,931,932,934,935,936,938,939,942,946,947,950,954,955,956,958,961,962,963,964,965,966,967,969,970,971,975,976,977,981,982,984,985,986,987,989,990,992,993,994,996,1000,1001,1002,1003,1004,1005,1006,1007,1008,1009,1011,1012,1014,1015,1016,1017,1019,1020,1021,1022,1024,1025,1026,1027,1030,1031,1032,1033,1034,1035,1036,1037,1039,1041,1042,1044,1046,1047,1048,1049,1051,1052,1053,1055,1056,1059,1060,1061,1065,1069,1071,1072,1074,1075,1078,1079,1082,1084,1085,1086,1087,1088,1094,1095,1096,1098,1099,1102,1104,1105,1106,1112,1113,1115,1117,1119,1121,1123,1124,1125,1126,1127,1128,1130,1131,1132,1134,1135,1141,1142,1143,1145,1147,1149,1150,1152,1153,1154,1155,1156,1158,1160,1161,1162,1163,1164,1165,1166,1167,1168,1169,1170,1171,1172,1173,1174,1175,1177,1180,1182,1184,1186,1188,1190,1191,1192,1194,1195,1196,1197,1198,1199,1200,1201,1202,1204,1205,1206,1207,1208,1210,1211,1212,1214,1215,1216,1219,1220,1221,1222,1223,1224,1225,1229,1231,1233,1234,1235,1238,1240,1241,1243,1244,1245,1248,1249,1254,1255,1258,1259,1260,1262,1264,1265,1266,1267,1268,1269,1270,1272,1273,1274,1276,1277,1278,1279,1280,1281,1282,1285,1286,1287,1288,1290,1291,1293,1295,1296,1297,1300,1301,1304,1306,1307,1308,1309,1310,1311,1312,1313,1314,1317,1319,1321,1324,1325,1326,1327,1328,1329,1334,1336,1340,1341,1342,1343,1344,1352) AND post_type = 'article') OR (post_id IN (17,16) AND post_type = 'question')) AND is_recommend = 1 AND is_del = 0) ORDER BY `add_time` DESC LIMIT 10

[ Log time: 1618127526.9956 ] [ Expend time: 0.0050539970397949 ] SELECT COUNT(*) AS `n` FROM `mt_posts_index` WHERE (((post_id IN (19,22,21,65,66,76,73,74,89,90,92,93,94,99,101,103,106,108,110,111,107,122,123,125,133,141,142,143,144,145,147,148,150,151,154,162,168,169,172,173,174,175,176,177,178,179,180,181,182,189,190,191,192,193,197,218,220,222,223,224,225,226,228,229,230,231,232,233,234,236,239,241,242,243,244,246,247,248,249,250,251,252,253,255,258,259,260,261,262,128,266,269,270,199,271,273,274,278,279,280,281,290,282,284,285,286,287,277,254,272,263,288,289,291,292,294,297,299,300,301,304,307,309,314,317,319,326,327,333,335,336,339,338,337,340,343,344,346,347,351,353,355,356,357,359,360,365,367,368,370,371,376,377,379,380,381,382,384,386,387,388,389,390,391,392,393,394,395,396,397,402,403,404,407,408,411,415,416,417,418,419,420,423,427,429,431,434,436,439,444,445,447,449,454,455,456,457,459,460,461,466,467,468,469,471,473,475,478,488,498,499,501,502,503,504,507,508,510,511,512,514,516,517,518,519,520,521,522,523,525,527,528,529,533,534,536,537,538,541,542,543,544,545,546,547,548,549,556,557,558,559,560,561,565,566,567,568,570,574,575,576,577,580,581,582,583,587,588,590,591,592,593,596,597,598,600,602,603,604,605,607,608,609,611,613,614,615,616,617,618,619,621,626,627,628,629,630,631,632,634,635,639,641,643,646,647,648,650,653,655,656,657,659,660,663,665,666,669,671,672,674,678,679,680,681,682,685,686,687,688,692,694,695,696,698,699,700,701,702,705,706,709,710,713,715,716,717,719,720,722,724,725,727,728,731,735,737,738,739,740,741,742,743,744,749,751,752,753,755,757,758,759,760,761,762,764,765,768,769,770,771,773,774,775,778,779,780,781,782,783,785,786,787,790,791,795,798,801,802,804,806,807,808,809,810,811,812,813,814,818,819,820,822,824,825,828,829,832,835,839,840,842,843,844,846,848,850,851,853,855,858,859,863,867,868,873,874,875,876,878,879,880,881,882,884,885,886,888,890,891,893,897,899,902,903,907,908,909,910,911,915,916,917,918,919,922,923,926,929,930,931,932,934,935,936,938,939,942,946,947,950,954,955,956,958,961,962,963,964,965,966,967,969,970,971,975,976,977,981,982,984,985,986,987,989,990,992,993,994,996,1000,1001,1002,1003,1004,1005,1006,1007,1008,1009,1011,1012,1014,1015,1016,1017,1019,1020,1021,1022,1024,1025,1026,1027,1030,1031,1032,1033,1034,1035,1036,1037,1039,1041,1042,1044,1046,1047,1048,1049,1051,1052,1053,1055,1056,1059,1060,1061,1065,1069,1071,1072,1074,1075,1078,1079,1082,1084,1085,1086,1087,1088,1094,1095,1096,1098,1099,1102,1104,1105,1106,1112,1113,1115,1117,1119,1121,1123,1124,1125,1126,1127,1128,1130,1131,1132,1134,1135,1141,1142,1143,1145,1147,1149,1150,1152,1153,1154,1155,1156,1158,1160,1161,1162,1163,1164,1165,1166,1167,1168,1169,1170,1171,1172,1173,1174,1175,1177,1180,1182,1184,1186,1188,1190,1191,1192,1194,1195,1196,1197,1198,1199,1200,1201,1202,1204,1205,1206,1207,1208,1210,1211,1212,1214,1215,1216,1219,1220,1221,1222,1223,1224,1225,1229,1231,1233,1234,1235,1238,1240,1241,1243,1244,1245,1248,1249,1254,1255,1258,1259,1260,1262,1264,1265,1266,1267,1268,1269,1270,1272,1273,1274,1276,1277,1278,1279,1280,1281,1282,1285,1286,1287,1288,1290,1291,1293,1295,1296,1297,1300,1301,1304,1306,1307,1308,1309,1310,1311,1312,1313,1314,1317,1319,1321,1324,1325,1326,1327,1328,1329,1334,1336,1340,1341,1342,1343,1344,1352) AND post_type = 'article') OR (post_id IN (17,16) AND post_type = 'question')) AND is_recommend = 1 AND is_del = 0)

[ Log time: 1618127527.0263 ] [ Expend time: 0.0047590732574463 ] SELECT `mt_topic_relation`.* FROM `mt_topic_relation` WHERE (item_id IN(304,301,300,162,103,101,94,93,92,89) AND `type` = 'article')

[ Log time: 1618127527.0323 ] [ Expend time: 0.004709005355835 ] SELECT `mt_topic`.* FROM `mt_topic` WHERE (topic_id IN(319,78,79,56,12,318,154,80,80,56,12,83,84,85,63,21,12,56,64,69,20,12,83,16,21,91,69,46,10,43,10,46,69,43,161,69,15,309,14,306,268,249,14,56,306,196,104))

[ Log time: 1618127527.0378 ] [ Expend time: 0.0042328834533691 ] SELECT `mt_article`.* FROM `mt_article` WHERE (is_del = 0 and id IN(304,301,300,162,103,101,94,93,92,89))

[ Log time: 1618127527.0428 ] [ Expend time: 0.0041630268096924 ] SELECT `mt_users`.* FROM `mt_users` WHERE (is_del = 0 and uid IN(34,30,29,4,5,43,12,1))

[ Log time: 1618127527.046 ] [ Expend time: 0.0023839473724365 ] SELECT `mt_users_attrib`.* FROM `mt_users_attrib` WHERE (uid IN(1,4,5,12,29,30,34,43))


Cache

[ Log time: 1618127526.664 ] Backend: File

[ Log time: 1618127526.6672 ] [ Expend time: 0.003130 ] Get Cache: crond, result type: array

[ Log time: 1618127526.6697 ] [ Expend time: 0.002449 ] Get Cache: crond_timer_half_minute, result type: integer

[ Log time: 1618127526.6725 ] [ Expend time: 0.002619 ] Get Cache: crond_timer_minute, result type: integer

[ Log time: 1618127526.6748 ] [ Expend time: 0.002274 ] Get Cache: crond_timer_five_minutes, result type: integer

[ Log time: 1618127526.6771 ] [ Expend time: 0.002190 ] Get Cache: crond_timer_ten_minutes, result type: integer

[ Log time: 1618127526.6796 ] [ Expend time: 0.002405 ] Get Cache: crond_timer_half_hour, result type: integer

[ Log time: 1618127526.6822 ] [ Expend time: 0.002477 ] Get Cache: crond_timer_hour, result type: integer

[ Log time: 1618127526.6845 ] [ Expend time: 0.002144 ] Get Cache: crond_timer_day, result type: integer

[ Log time: 1618127526.7196 ] [ Expend time: 0.001710 ] Get Cache: nav_menu_list, result type: array

[ Log time: 1618127526.7428 ] [ Expend time: 0.001802 ] Get Cache: user_group_99, result type: array

[ Log time: 1618127526.8259 ] [ Expend time: 0.000441 ] Get Cache: db_rows_cache_c00bd97f3c689de9f55bf5e4a4e658aa, result type: boolean

[ Log time: 1618127526.8386 ] [ Expend time: 0.000318 ] Get Cache: question_related_list_d31ef535c512d51e9872d474399f2195_10, result type: boolean

[ Log time: 1618127526.8852 ] [ Expend time: 0.006036 ] Save Cache: question_related_list_d31ef535c512d51e9872d474399f2195_10, result type: boolean

[ Log time: 1618127526.8856 ] [ Expend time: 0.000246 ] Get Cache: update_views_article_14c302555741ecb6da60b28f96a02ee6_253, result type: boolean

[ Log time: 1618127526.893 ] [ Expend time: 0.007290 ] Save Cache: update_views_article_14c302555741ecb6da60b28f96a02ee6_253, result type: integer

[ Log time: 1618127526.9812 ] [ Expend time: 0.000601 ] Get Cache: posts_list_by_topic_ids_bc7fe877a9e6fe9e87e8d7e50f6fb1ec, result type: boolean

[ Log time: 1618127526.9897 ] [ Expend time: 0.000608 ] Get Cache: db_rows_cache_e200ec91add475205cbebf317d639af2, result type: boolean

[ Log time: 1618127527.0042 ] [ Expend time: 0.008393 ] Save Cache: db_rows_cache_e200ec91add475205cbebf317d639af2, result type: integer

[ Log time: 1618127527.0117 ] [ Expend time: 0.007296 ] Save Cache: posts_list_by_topic_ids_bc7fe877a9e6fe9e87e8d7e50f6fb1ec, result type: array

[ Log time: 1618127527.0121 ] [ Expend time: 0.000327 ] Get Cache: posts_list_by_topic_ids_found_rows_7bc75aa56b039150cf520ed0951f38c2, result type: boolean

[ Log time: 1618127527.0199 ] [ Expend time: 0.007649 ] Save Cache: posts_list_by_topic_ids_found_rows_7bc75aa56b039150cf520ed0951f38c2, result type: integer


Crond

[ Log time: 1618127526.6698 ] Tag: half_minute, Last run time: 2021-04-11 15:51:44

[ Log time: 1618127526.6725 ] Tag: minute, Last run time: 2021-04-11 15:51:44

[ Log time: 1618127526.6749 ] Tag: five_minutes, Last run time: 2021-04-11 15:48:57

[ Log time: 1618127526.6772 ] Tag: ten_minutes, Last run time: 2021-04-11 15:42:45

[ Log time: 1618127526.6797 ] Tag: half_hour, Last run time: 2021-04-11 15:50:43

[ Log time: 1618127526.6823 ] Tag: hour, Last run time: 2021-04-11 15:47:33

[ Log time: 1618127526.6845 ] Tag: day, Last run time: 2021-04-11 08:08:04


Escape time: 0.5751838684082, 54 queries, PHP Memory usage: 9465.984375 KB, Server time: 2021-04-11 15:52:06